From the Book Sailing ship to Supertanker.
While the "City "-class ships were under construction, another four of bridge-aft design were ordered. These, however, were larger, with a deadweight carrying capacity of 52,000 tons on dimensions of 743 feet (loa), breadth 102 feet and a draught of 37 feet 5 inches. Two geared turbines, developing 19,000 shp, gave 17 knots. Each ship had 35 tanks. Two were ordered from the Tyne and the other pair came from Amsterdam.
Built by Vickers-Armstrongs (Shipbuilders) Ltd., Newcastle :
Completed 2.1963 Gross tons 30,981
28.10.1976: Arrived Kaohsiung for breaking up.
Completed 12.1963 Gross tons 31,200
3.1977: Converted by Sasebo Heavy Industries Co., Sasebo, Japan, to a floating separation, gas-treating and storage facility for crude oil production. Deck house, funnel and engines removed and a new spar deck fitted above the main deck. Renamed W. P. No. 1.
1980: Renamed Exxon Santa Ynez and moored 3 1/2 miles offshore at the Hondo Field, off Santa Barbara, California, attached to a single anchor leg mooring system 1 1/2 miles from the production platform.
Built by Nederlandsche Dok en Scheepsbouw Maats., Amsterdam :
Completed 9.1962 Gross tons 31,720
20.2.1965: Struck Avocet Rock. 14.22N/42.43E on voyage Jabbal Dhanna to Milford Haven and sustained severe damage although refloated on 26.2.1965.
9.11.1976: Arrived Kaohsiung for breaking up.
Completed 5.1963 Gross tons 31,720
10.10.1983: Arrived Ulsan, South Korea, for breaking up.
When the Suez Canal was closed in 1967 there came the introduction of the large crude-carrying tanker to work from the Persian Gulf around the Cape of Good Hope. These large ships outstripped the capacity of the discharging terminals of Europe and the oil companies saw it as necessary to fit out one or two tankers as lightening ships, taking oil from the larger tankers in various anchorages, particularly off the south coast of England at Lyme Bay. When a satisfactory draught was met the larger ship moved on to her discharge port. Esso Cardiffwas fitted with special fenders for this work.
The aim of naval architects ever since the age of the steamship began has been to reduce water resistance to ships. Experiments proved that this could be done by a specially designed bow - a bulbous bow, in which the forward frames are swelled out at the forefoot into a bulb which reduces the dipping movement. It also sets up a new wave system which affects the normal bow wave and reduces the energy expended in making the primary bow wave.
In the summer of 1964 Esso sent a number of their tankers for the fitting of bulbous bows. The work was spread over the July-December period, with each ship taking about fifteen days. Six ships of the 48,000 tdw type were handled by Palmers Hebburn Works of Vickers-Armstrongs, beginning with Esso Cardiff on 10th July, while five of the 26,000 tdw type went to the Swan, Hunter yard at Wallsend, beginning with the Esso Exeter on which work was completed on 4th August.